Moreover, the narrative instance of style indirect libre, places within the text an indeterminacy of judgment and counters the mode of the withdrawn narrator with a mode that instead mingles distance and proximity to the character in question; Flaubert and Marceau, Madame Bovary, The discontent, however, does not only drive her to consume excessively. Rather, it could be seen to outline the specific quality of fiction that precisely because it is not bound by the laws of physics, nor necessarily by the rules of grammar, it has the capability to undo connections and cuts which are taken for granted. The drive can be mortal precisely because it is indifferent to death as well as to life ; because it is not preoccupied with death, because death does not interest it. I use the notion of materiality in its broadest sense here, ranging from particles over flesh and corporeality to objects of consumption, and I wish to keep its definition open precisely due to its feature of instability and indeterminacy. What defines her, as a fictional character, is that she refuses the separation between two kinds of enjoyment: Moreover, desire and material signifiers are intricately connected:

Power relations are thus lodged in every object, but is also constantly performed and re-performed. Similarly, she says, she has had only one lover, namely the sum of all her different intercourses. The narrator has just informed us of the custom of hurling the caps under the bench: As accounted for in the first chapter, for Lacan the death drive is linked to jouissance — jouissance is the satisfaction of a drive and, as such, Antigone as the paradigm of acting according to desire supports the reading of Emma, Nana and Joe: The system was the overriding factor with K.

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I liked his hands. The death drive is not a drive that aims at death. Certain points on these topics will be incorporated in my analysis insofar as they solidify the themes I explore, but are not in themselves focal points.

dissertation madame bovary moeurs de province

Though the stories are told in elaborate detail, in principle the story could have taken place anywhere but, simultaneously, the specificities of the material and historical settings matter. She generally lacks the manners that are expected of her, in both her role at the theater and in terms of style, and she never really changes in that respect: While they do undoubtedly seek the attention of men, their desire of jouissance and the relentlessness of their chase qualify as a force driven not by identity but, rather, by conscious or unconscious will.


According to Barad, the relative stability that we experience in our daily, macroscopic lives is generated by matter iteratively producing and reproducing; again and again the same intra-actions and cuts are performed. Though it is a somewhat derogatory term, it is embraced by the characters as something desirable, in line with their desire for destruction and degradation.

The first of them, the police… symbolises the community as an ensemble of well-defined parts, places and functions, and of the properties and capabilities linked to them, all of which presupposes a fixed distribution of things into common and private — a distinction which itself depends on an ordered distribution of the visible and the invisible, noise and speech, etc.

I use the French text for my close readings of Flaubert and Zola.

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Every time that something happens in the fiction—notably the birth of a love— they are the real content of the event, the real cause of the emotion.

Emma is at once more and less sophisticated than Nana. When Seligman reappears in her room and tries to have sex with her she kills him, and with him, perhaps also dies the desire that she has evoked or even transferred to him.

In bovaary passages they pprovince seem to be the reason why she acquires all the things she does.

Venus, moreover, is a particularly interesting reference. The Dionysian principle of time is chaotic and cyclical, and breaks with a linear and temporal order of both Apollonian reason and Christianity.

Rather than taking offense at being equated to an animal, she welcomes this naming of the horse and finds it amusing.

Cambridge University Press, Culler makes a similar point when he talks about the fiacre scene: Who is producing them, and maadme what? In Lacanian theory insatiability is the defining parameter of desire.

Nana is nature that performs; she is matter set in motion, definitely not by a male intentionality or reason but rather by herself.


While it could be set in various times and places, when told, the story is always set somewhere, and this somewhere conditions the unfolding of the story, though not determinately.

It seems, then, that the task is not so much to gain recognition as an oppressed group, e. She will say whatever gives her control over men, and she is able to read almost all men sexually, she states. In his Seminar VII, The Ethics of Psychoanalysis, Lacan links the Freudian notion of death drive with jouissance, namely the excessive pleasure that is unbearable to the subject and can thus easily turn into its opposite, suffering.

His departure saddens Emma and when, shortly after, the landowner and notorious seducer Monsieur Rodolphe Boulanger comes strolling along she readily engages in an affair with him.

On the one hand, Zola seems to subscribe to a determinism in which the social dimension functions on the basis of laws that we can observe and describe; on the other hand, he seems fairly invested in the social situation as unfair, and in possibilities for changing it.

dissertation madame bovary moeurs de province

As she comes while being whipped and her skin breaks and bleeds, the film cuts to her levitation, her experience of feminine jouissance. Additionally, it is a quite focused gaze, which the narrator inhabits.


dissertation madame bovary moeurs de province

For instance, her white thighs are mentioned in the quotation above but, even more significantly, fleshy phrasings serve to describe other things, most surprisingly perhaps, light and wind: The lack of money is an exemplary symbol; the material is never enough, it is never satisfying.

These two regimes are called the organic regime and the crystalline regime, respectively. She then looks madam her mirror image, laughingly as the image also kisses itself. He therefore postpones pleasure in expectation of the pain which will make the gratification possible.