As a matter of fact, its quantitative counterpart—classical content analysis—is repeatedly mentioned as a method of analyzing data in the context of conducting case study research cf. Before we take a look at the individual steps in the process of conducting case study research, it is now time to deliver a definition of what case study research actually is. Obviously, classical content analysis is essentially a quantitative method with the core and central tool being its system of categories cf. Case study research methods. Therefore and because the case study strategy is ideally suited to exploration of issues in depth and following leads into new areas of new constructions of theory, the theoretical framework at the beginning may not be the same one that survives to the end HARTLEY, , p.

This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” p. However, not only the manifest content of the material is analyzed, but also so-called latent content as well as formal aspects of the material MAYRING, b, pp. Research Question, Aim and Structure of the Paper. Miriam Wilhelm University of Groningen Verified email at rug. The four conditions or tests are cf. According to YIN a there are six possible sources of evidence for case studies: There has been an ongoing debate on the appropriateness of different approaches and methods in social research.

Semantic validity relates to the meaning reconstruction of the material, and is expressed in the appropriateness of the category definitions, the key examples and the rules for coders. According to HARTLEY research design is “the argument for the logical steps which will be taken to link the research question s and issues to data collection, analysis and interpretation in a coherent way” p.

Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for usd case studies is examined and evaluated.

the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research florian kohlbacher

The aspects of text interpretation, following the research questions, are put into categories, which were carefully founded and revised within the process of analysis feedback loops. Technical fuzziness of qualitatively oriented research needs to be balanced by theoretical stringency. As has already been mentioned, many experts in the field of socio-scientific research suggest using and combining several methods—so-called triangulation or cross-examination—in order to obtain more valid results see Sections 1.


The four conditions or tests are cf.

These are especially important when trying to generalize results. Because of the problems of reliability, the coding of texts is usually assigned to multiple coders so that the researcher can snalysis whether the constructs being investigated are shared and whether multiple coders can reliably apply the same kohlbachfr MAYRING,p.

In fact, despite this openness, qualitative content analysis is strictly controlled methodologically and the material is analyzed in a step-by-step process see Section 4.

Das Floriann einer variablenorientierten qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse. Therefore, the research question which is to be answered in the course of this paper is the following: Kombination und Integration qualitativer und quantitativer Analyse Philipp Mayring If necessary the system of categories is re-examined and revised, which necessitates a reappraisal of the material.

Therefore, qualitative content analysis offers a rule-based, theory-guided method for analyzing interview transcripts, just in the way it is required by the principles of case study research. Verified email at economist.

the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research florian kohlbacher

The main idea of the procedure is to formulate a criterion of definition, derived from the theoretical background and the research question, which determines the aspects of the textual material taken into account.

At the same time, qualitative content analysis uses a rule-based and methodologically controlled approach in order to deal with the complexity and gradually reduce it. This “Cited by” count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. Keywords case study research; content analysis; qualitative content analysis; qualitative research.

Florian Kohlbacher – Google Scholar Citations

MAYRING a, [6] even speaks of “a qualitarive analysis without respecting latent contents and contexts, working with simplifying and distorting quantification.


At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. Or, put the other way round: Social research methods 2nd ed. They are predominant, but quantitative data and its analysis can add to the overall picture” p.

Among the procedures of qualitative content analysis MAYRING a, [8] hallmarks the following two approaches as central to developing a category system and finding the appropriate text components as a result: The creation of knowledge through case study research.

the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research florian kohlbacher

Therefore, qualitative content analysis perfectly fits the credo of case study research: Journal of Consumer Behaviour 11 3, Quality criteria of reliability and validity see also Section 4. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

The procedures of qualitative content analysis seem less appropriate, if the research question is highly open-ended, explorative, variable and working with categories would be a restriction, or if a more holistic, not step-by-step ongoing of analysis is planned MAYRING, b, p.

More will be thr on the topic of coding in Sections 4. In fact, qualitative content analysis claims to synthesize two contradictory methodo logical principles: Moreover, qualitative research methods have often faced acceptance problems and academic and disciplinary resistances, which are partly due to the politics embedded in this field of discourse cf.

Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches Vol.